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Full text of "North Carolina tobacco report [serial]"

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NORTH CAROLINA 

TOBACCO REPORT 

1953-1954 



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narkets. °" 63, fair orange k*^ Q^O- ^ 

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THE BULLETIN 
of fhe 

North Carolina Department of Agriculture 

L. Y. Ballentine, Commissioner 

Number 135 March, 1954 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Tobacco Outlook 1954 4 

Twenty Years of the Tobacco Program 8 

State Summary 1953-1954 12 

North Carolina Tobacco Warehouses Sales Report 

for Season 1953-1954 16 

Dealer and Warehouse Resales 1953-1954 18 

Producer and Gross Sales of Flue-Cured Tobacco 

by States 1953 18 

Stabilization Receipts by Belts 1953 18 

North Carolina Flue-Cured Crops 1919-1953 19 

North Carolina Burley Crops 1928-1953 20 

North Carolina Tobacco Allotments 1954 21 

North Carolina Tobacco Warehouses and Operators by Belts 

and Markets 1953 23 

Tobacco Consumption (Chart) Back Cover 



FOREWORD 

The fifth annual issue of the TOBACCO REPORT 
has been compiled and prepared by W. P. Hedrick and 
J. H. Cyrus, tobacco specialists with the Division of 
Markets, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture under the Research and Marketing Act. 

Credit for statistical data contained herein is due 
the Cooperative Crop Reporting Service of the North 
Carolina and United States Department of Agriculture, 
the U.S.D.A. Tobacco Division and the Agricultural 
Marketing Service. 

This issue of THE BULLETIN is dedicated to the 
newspapers and radio stations throughout North Caro- 
lina which have made a tremendous contribution to the 
welfare of tobacco growers by keeping them informed 
on market prices, crop conditions and other factors 
affecting the production and marketing of this im- 
portant crop. 



■g_jL- 





Commissioner of Agriculture 



For free distribution by the Tobacco Section, Markets Division, North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Raleigh, N. C. 



Tobacco Ouflook for 1954 

In spite of a prolonged drought and a continuous drop in consumption of 
cigarettes, tobacco growers and the tobacco industry had a good year in 
1953. 

Due to the drought during the growing season, income to growers was 
expected to be cut 30 to 40 million dollars. This did not materialize. 
Actually, the loss in tobacco dollars for the year was only about 6 million — a 
drop from $458 million in 1952 to $452 million in 1953. 

The distribution of cash received from the crop was erratic, however, 
from area to area and from farm to farm. Farmers in most sections with 
early crops produced quality tobacco and received good prices. Late maturing 
crops suffered from excessive drought damage causing low yields per acre 
and correspondingly low quality and price. This was particularly true in 
the Middle and Old Belt areas of the state. 

Since cash returns from the 1953 crop will influence the crop planning 
for 1954, and many growers will start this year's crop with very little cash 
in hand, the demand for crop financing should be brisk during the spring. 

The new administration in Washington has changed the name of the old 
Production and Marketing Administration to the Agricultural Stabilization 
and Conservation Service. The functions of the office remain the same 
insofar as tobacco allotments are concerned. 

Secretary of Agriculture Benson, through the A.S. & C. Service, has 
allotted growers in this State 695 thousand acres for flue-cured tobacco 
in 1954. This is approximately the same acreage allocated in 1953. This 
acreage is expected to produce about 850 million pounds during the coming 
season. 

The Secretary set up 17,000 acres, allowed by law, for new growers and 
to make adjustments of acreage for old growers. The acreage for adjust- 
ment and for new growers applies to the entire flue-cured area. 

Growers voted in the 1952 referendum to extend marketing quotas on the 
1953- 1954, and 1955 crops. 

Prospects for a good price during the 1954 season are favorable. This 
conclusion is arrived at by a close analysis of the three influencing factors 
that regulate our tobacco economy. 

First, the position of our stocks in storage. Since tobacco is allowed 
to age from 18 to 30 months, we normally have in storage about 2.5 years' 
supply. On January 1, 1954, stocks were equal to about 2.4 years' supply 
or one per cent below a normal level. Hot, dry weather lowered yields in 
the Middle and Old Belts which caused a 10 per cent smaller crop in 1953 
than in 1952. When the flue-cured season opens in July, 1954, stocks are 
expected to be 1,800 million pounds while on July 1, 1953, they were 
1,852 million pounds. 




A hogshead of tobacco being inspected bet 
market. 



ore shipment to an export 



nortZ''s'n rrS/lZie: 'Lf ''' ^^ '' ''' "- ^^^^^ - 
European countries wS buy ou toWrT" T""'^ '" "'"^ '' ^^^ 
has reached the most favor^ ^''\ ^^^^'^'^ has been improving lately and 

tobacco. In spite of the hL . ^''' "'"* '' "''P°'^ ^"^^ «" ^^e 

1953. ^ ^^''' "g^^-ette consumption increased during 

flutrred'laT::' West? r' '^^ '^^" ^'^ ^^^°"^ ^^^^^ "^^P-^-" o^ 

pounds in Sr-ab^ f 12 mmrin^J^sf h'^^^ ^^"^ '^^^ ^^ "^"^^^" 
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a slight "ncrea e in th ."n'^ ^*'*''- ^' '' ""^^^ ^^at there has been 

from'soXr Ehodetrdfnc^:^^"'^^ '''''''' ^"' '"^^"-^ -^^^^*^^- 

morVlTlattetrS^rriTr"^"^- ^^^^^^ ^^'^ ^^^"^^^ -' ^-^ting 
taste for Oriental tobacco, which was used principally before 



and during the war. However, German manufacturers say they are using 
more Oriental tobacco due to high prices of the American flue-cured tobacco. 
If American importers would buy more German goods, this trend toward 
Oriental tobacco could be stopped. Since the foreign aid programs are being 
drastically cut, it will be increasingly necessary that we buy more goods 
from our tobacco customers if we expect to continue to sell them our crop. 
During and immediately after World War II, the preference of German 
smokers was for a blended cigarette using a high percentage of flue-cured 
tobacco. This preference has been responsible for a trend toward greater 
consumption of cigarettes while the stocks of tobacco are low. Every effort 
will be made by our export tobacco dealers to take advantage of this 
favored position during the coming year. 

In spite of high import duties and restrictions on imports by a number 
of countries, 1954 exports should equal or exceed those of 1953. 

Third, domestic use of tobacco is the principal factor influencing our 
prospects for next season. Despite a drop in cigarette consumption for six 
straight months, amounting to two per cent for the entire year, domestic 
usings of tobacco showed a slight increase. Cigarette sales for over 20 
years have steadily increased and should continue to do so due to our rapid 
population growth. It is estimated that potential cigarette smokers have 
increased at the rate of over a million a year since 1940 and will continue 
to do so for the next ten years. 

There has been a lot of publicity on health and smoking. The psychological 
effect may have been partly to blame for the drop in cigarette consumption. 
The tobacco companies themselves have started a fact-finding campaign; 
and if it is found that the tobacco plant does contain harmful components, 
it is possible that they can be eliminated through research and plant 
breeding. In years past tobacco has been attacked many times but so far 
the industry has always weathered the storm and there has been a steadily 
increasing per-capita consumption. 

The cigarette smoking habit is a peculiar one — once formed, it is hard 
to break regardless of price. Smokers sometimes change from one brand to 
another but seldom give up the tobacco habit. Personal income has some 
effect on consumption, as smokers shift from cigarettes to pipes or cigars. 
However in the long run, the smoker generally comes back to cigarettes 
for convenience and smoking pleasure. 

During 1953, the use of "king-sized" cigarettes increased by 44 per cent. 
These cigarettes use 17 per cent more raw tobacco than regular size. 
Therefore this type cigarette made a major contribution to the increased 
use of flue-cured tobacco. 

These changes in consumer habits are creating an intensive competitive 
struggle among manufacturers who are introducing new brands, king-sized 
and filter-tipped, all hoping to find favor with the consumer. 

Pipe smoking and chewing tobacco sales declined somewhat during the 
year, but "good old" snuff held its own. 




Samples of tobacco are carefully analyzed in research laboratories to 
determine cigarette qualities of new varieties. 



It is too early to estimate the 90 per cent parity support price for 1954, 
However, the Government price support for 1953 was 47.9 cents per pound, 
while North Carolina growers averaged 54 cents per pound on the auction 
market. 

The demand for the 1953 crop was strong in the areas that produced a 
good quality tobacco. The complaint of the buyers in other areas was that 
the nicotine content of the dry weather tobacco was higher than normal. 

The stock held by the Stabilization Corporation is composed mainly of 
tobacco received from the drought areas. Therefore there is a shortage of 
good quality cigarette leaf available and the demand for this type tobacco 
should be strong this coming season. 

Stocks held by the Stabilization Corporation as of January 25, 1954: 

1951 Crop 38,938,600 Pounds 

1952 Crop 111,509,100 Pounds 

1953 Crop 132,074,720 Pounds 

Total 282,522,420 Pounds (redried weight) 

The 185,000 tobacco growers of the State, given a normal growing season, 
should do well in 1954. 



Twenty Years of fhe Tobacco Program 

There are three main parts of the national tobacco program: 

1. Acreage control to balance supply with demand and promote 
orderly marketing: 

2. Price supports to keep farm prices from falling to danger- 
ously low levels; and 

3. Inspection and market news services to provide information 
on grades, market prices, and the basis for loan or "ad- 
vance" rates under the price-support program. 

The tempermental tobacco crop takes a lot of experience, a big invest- 
ment, and plenty of hard work to get it ready for the auction warehouse 
floor. There is also an element of chance with the weather, bugs, and plant 
diseases. 

Because of the amount of know-how necessary, tobacco growing has 
continued to be a family undertaking. The family-sized unit is maintained 
even on the larger farms operated by tenants and sharecroppers. The 
family operation has served to develop and hand down the know-how from 
generation to generation and to provide the hand labor needed to produce 
quality tobacco. The price received on the auction floor determines how 
much is left over for the family to live on after production costs are paid. 



1920-1932 

The tobacco program in the flue-cured area of North Carolina, Virginia, 
South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida was brought about by wide fluctuations 
in production, prices received by growers, and changing conditions in the 
tobacco industry, both domestic and foreign. Growers were in and out of 
production depending on the previous year's price. Acreages varied during 
the 1920's and the early '30's from 414,000 to 768,000. With no control over 
production, prices varied accordingly. The record 1931 crop caused the 
market price to collapse, bringing bankruptcy to thousands of growers, 

1933-1936 

Congress passed the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933. Growers were 
quick to see how it could be used to eliminate surpluses and low prices. 
Improved supply and demand ratio brought tobacco income back to a 
satisfactory level. 



The first efforts to make the Agricultural Adjustment Act into a work- 
able tobacco program failed as a result of a U. S. Supreme Court decision 
in 1936. 

1937 

Without an effective program, growers produced a large crop and sup- 
plies reached a record level. Prices fell to near the cost of production. 

1938 

Congress again passed an Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, authoriz- 
ing farm marketing quotas on a poundage basis, removing the objectionable 
features of the first Act. The result was a smaller crop in 1938 with 
satisfactory prices. ! 




These hands of tobacco show the contrast between good and poor sorting 
for market. The hand at the left is uniform in length, quality and color, 
while the other two comprise leaves of mixed characteristics. 

1939 

On the first trip to the polls, growers voted not to use the acreage con- 
trol system. However, after one season without controls in 1939, production 
increased and prices slumped to such a low level that growers saw that 
acreage control and price stabilization were the only solution to the tobacco 
problem. The second attempt was successful, and the tobacco program has 
been improved upon since its inception. Through trial and error, most 
inequities have been removed. 



9 




This is the modern sample room of the Flue-Cured Tobacco Cooperative 
Stabilization Corporation. Samples of the various grades of tobacco held 
by this organization are stored here so prospective buyers may inspect 
them at any time. 

1940-1954 

That growers generally are well satisfied with the program has been 
proved by continued support at the polls. In the last referendum in 1952, 
growers voted 98 per cent for the three year control — 1953-, 1954, and 1955. 

Supporting Agencies 

During World War II the manpower shortage made it impossible to 
produce enough tobacco to supply the demand. While we were trying 
to supply all of our allies with cigarettes, stocks of tobacco in the world 
markets reached a very low level. It was necessary to make allocations to 
all manufacturers and, because of increased competition, to place an over- 
all ceiling on the price paid to growers for the crop. 

After the war, as conditions began to stabilize, the price of the lower 
grades of tobacco began to fall below the cost of production. This condition 
brought about the use of Commodity Credit funds to stabilize prices at 
90 per cent of parity on a grade basis rather than an over-all basis. To do 
this, it was essential that tobacco growers form a cooperative organization 
to handle this part of the program. 

In 1946, the Flue-cured Tobacco Stabilization Corporation was organized 
with a membership of 78,000 — each with a $5.00 share of stock. This co- 
operative has since grown to be the largest cooperative in the world, with 
485,000 members. 

10 



This organization, with Commodity Credit funds, has continually sup- 
ported the price at 90 per cent of parity on varying amounts of tobacco 
from each year's crop. Through 1953, the cooperative has handled 1,044 
million pounds with net returns to growers of over 13 million dollars above 
the support prices. Besides payment to growers, the organization has paid 
the Commodity Credit Corporation over four million dollars in interest and 
has not cost the Federal Government a dollar. 

Government Grading 

To take advantage of the support program, it was also necessary that all 
tobacco be inspected by a Federal tobacco grader and that all tobacco offered 
for sale through the auction system bear an official Government grade. These 
needs were met by the services authorized in The Tobacco Inspection Act of 
1935. Federal inspection provides an impartial and relatively accurate 
measuring stick of U. S. Standard grades and prices which are used to 
determine the support price. 

Tobacco Associates 

To supplement the acreage control and price-support program, growers 
also set up a promotional organization known as Tobacco Associates. This 
was done by permissive legislation which allows growers to vote in a 
referendum on assessing themselves 10 cents per acre. 

Through this organization tobacco sales have been promoted in foreign 
countries. This venture has been successful in that foreign markets have 
been held at a fairly even level despite a scarcity of dollar exchange. New 
markets have been found and barter trades have been promoted in a few 
cases. Tobacco Associates supplements export efforts of the government 
and the independent dealers. Also they emphasize the production of quality 
tobacco. 

Conclusion 

President Eisenhower in announcing his farm program recently made this 
comment on the tobacco program: 

"Tobacco farmers have demonstrated their ability to hold production in 
line with demand at the supported price without loss to the Government. 
The relatively small acreage of tobacco and the limited areas to which it 
is adapted have made production control easier than with other crops. 

"The loan or support to cooperators is 90 per cent of the parity price 
in any year in which marketing quotas are in effect. 

"It is recommended that the tobacco program be continued in its present 
form." 

The President endorses it, the growers like it — let's keep our tobacco 
program ! 

11 



State Summary 1953-1954 

North Carolina tobacco growers in the Border and Eastern Belts received 
record high averages for their 1953 crop of flue-cured tobacco, while many 
growers in the Middle and Old Belts suffered a great loss on their crop 
due to the most severe drought ever experienced in this area. 

Auction sales for the 1953 crop of flue-cured tobacco got underway in 
North Carolina on August 3, 1953, and final sales were held on January 18, 
1954. The flue-cured marketing season covered a period of 100 sale days as 
compared with 103 days the preceding year. However, no sales were held 
on November 12 and 13 following the Armistice holiday, to allow the re- 
drying plants handling the Stabilization Corporation tobacco to catch up. 

The 44 flue-cured markets operating during the season sold 816,826,170 
pounds of tobacco for producers for a sum of $441,873,772. This gives the 
growers of North Carolina a 1953 season average of $54.10 per hundred 
pounds which is $3.91 more than the average of $50.19 per hundred re- 
ceived by growers in the 1952 season. In 1952, producers sold 877,396,736 
pounds of tobacco on North Carolina markets for a total of $440,396,598. 
Thus, the value of the 1953 producer sales increased $1,477,174 over the 
previous year, while the volume decreased 60,570,566 pounds below the 
1952 sales. 

Type 13 — The North Carolina Border Belt opened the 1953 season on 
August 3 with the usual eight markets operating. The general quality of the 



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12 




CUTTER GROUP 

COMPARATIVE PRICES OF GRADES BY BELTS 1953-54 



C3L C4L C4F C5LV C5K 

C2L C3F C4LV C5L C5F C 5M 

STANDARD GRADES 



crop was better than the year before, and the average prices for about two- 
thirds of the grades were 50 cents to $11.00 per hundred higher. Prices 
during the opening week were sliglitly below the opening week of 1952, 
but an up-swing carried the prices of many grades to a I'ecord peak by 
the first of October. Producer sales in this belt amounted to 158,571,908 
pounds which sold for a record value of $91,829,174, giving this belt an 
all-time high average of $57.91 per hundred. In 1952 this belt averaged 
$51.88 for 144,179,615 pounds which amounted to $74,800,200. The 1953 
season ended on October 22 after operating for 58 days as compared with 
62 days in 1952. 

Type 12 — The 17 Eastern Belt markets opened for the 1953 season on 
August 20. The demand was sti'ong throughout the season but was at its 
peak during the last half of September. Increases in grade prices over 
the preceding year were from $1.00 to $12.00 per hundred pounds. The 
quality of offerings was much better, and the percentage of lemon color 
tobacco was larger than that of the previous season. Growers received a 
record high average price of $57.74 per hundred for their 1953 crop. The 
volume of 432,383,188 pounds ranked fourth, and the value of $249,649,514 
was the second greatest on record. In the 1952 season growers received 
$225,464,389 for 442,271,010 pounds of tobacco, averaging $50.98 per hun- 
dred. The 1953 season ended on November 20 after 63 selling days. In 1952 
sales were completed on December 5 for a season of 73 days. 



13 



> 



Type 11 B — The first sales of the season were held in the Middle Belt 
on September 1 when the five markets located in the "sandhills" opened. 
The other five markets opened on Septembr 8, which was four sale days 
later. A very unfavorable growing season resulted in a crop which con- 
tained an unusually large amount of green and poor quality tobacco. This 
situation resulted in a sharp reduction in volume of sales and a lower 
average price. The decline in average price ranged from $1.00 to $6.00 per 
hundred pounds for many poor quality grades, and gains of $1.00 to $4.00 
per hundred occurred for a few better quality grades. Producer sales for 
the season totaled 122,732,884 pounds which sold for the sum of $57,906,330, 
giving this belt a season average of $47.18 per hundred. Comparative figures 
for the previous year show that growers sold 158,669,839 pounds for 
$79,147,911, averaging $49.88 per hundred. The season ended on December 
11 after operating for 68 days. The 1952 season operated for 69 days 
ending on December 12. 

Type 11 A — Auction sales were started on the Old Belt markets on 
September 21. The volume and quality of the 1953 crop was drastically 
reduced by the extreme drought that occurred in this area during the 
growing season. About 60 per cent of the grades offered for sale showed a 
decrease in average price of $1.00 to $8.00 per hundred. The largest losses 
occurred in the leaf offerings with about half of the poor to fair quality 
grades averaging 50 cents to $4.00 below their support prices. The volume 
of producer sales on the nine North Carolina markets in this belt reached 




B3L B4L B4GF B5F B5M B6F „J,„ B6GF 
B3F B4F B5L. B5R B£GF -B6a 
STANDARD GRADES 



14 




only 103,138,190 pounds during the season. The total value of these offerings 
amounted to $42,488,754 which gives this belt a season average of $41.20 
per hundred. Producer sales in 1952 amounted to 132,276,272 pounds which 
sold for $60,984,098, averaging $46.10 per hundred. Final sales were held 
in this belt on January 18, 1954. The season ended on January 9 last year. 

Type 31 — North Carolina burley tobacco markets at Asheville, Boone, 
and West Jefferson began auction sales for the 1953 crop on November 30. 
The Asheville market operated during the season with two sets of buyers, 
but the second set was short a buyer from one of the major companies. The 
volume of offerings on North Carolina markets was about the same as the 
previous year. However, the quality of the 1953 crop was considerably 
better than the 1952 crop which increased the value about 691 thousand 
dollars over the previous season. Producer sales on the three burley markets 
reached 14,674,398 pounds, returning the growers $7,881,050 for an average 
of $53.71 per hundred. Growers sold 14,778,764 pounds for $7,189,834, 
averaging $48.65 per hundred. Auction sales ended on North Carolina 
markets on January 20, 1954, after operating for 27 sale days. The 1952-53 
season covered a period of 30 sale days. 



15 



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Summary of Dealer and Warehouse Resales 

1953-54 



Belt 



Pounds 



Average 
Price 



Dollars 



Border Beit 






Dealer 


7,581,272 


42.89 


Warehouse 


14.073,216 


56.81 


Eastern Belt 






Dealer 


14,313,704 


42.45 


Warehouse 


33,124,259 


55.16 


Middle Belt 






Dealer 


5,960,204 


38.94 


Warehouse 


9,345,098 


49.15 


Old Belt 






Dealer 


3,392,192 


41.48 


Warehouse 


5,745,222 


46.96 


Burley Belt 






Dealer 


1,499,336 


50.77 


Warehouse 


1,726,192 


52.41' 



3,251,910 
7,994,456 



6,075,823 
18,271,488 



2,321,130 
4,593,362 



1,407,042 
2,697,925 



761,285 
904,611 



Producer and Gross Sales of Flue-Cured by 
States, 1953 

PRODUCER SALES GROSS SALES 

State Pounds Average Price Pounds Average Price 

N. C 816,826,170 54.10 910,361,337 53.66 

Va 132,841,761 42.16 141,540,471 42.37 

S. C 145,496,156 56.86 167,767,369 56.20 

Ga 155,170,266 51.51 171,768,028 51.00 

Fla 18,280,109 51.70 21,309,640 51.42 

TOTAL 1,268,614,462 52.81 1,412,746,845 52.58 



Stabilization Receipts by Belts 1953 







Producer Sales 


Stabilization 


Percentage 


Belt 


Type 


(Pounds) 


Receipts (lbs.) 


Stab. Received 


Old Belt 


... IIA 


235.979,951 


96,785,466 


41,0 


Middle Belt . . . . 


. . . IIB 


122,732,884 
432,383,188 


22,595,256 
15,655,010 


18.4 


Eastern Belt 


... 12 


3.6 


Border Belt 


, .. 13 


304,068,064 


10,763.894 


3.5 


Ga.-Fla. Belt . . . . 


... 14 
. . . 11-14 


173,450,375 


5,624,181 


3.2 


TOTAL 


268,614,462 


151,423,807 


5.6 



18 



North Carolina Flue-Cured Crop 1919-1953 



Year 


No. Acres 


Yield Per 

Acre 
(Pounds) 


Production 
(1,000 lbs.) 


Value 
(1,000 Dollars) 


Average 
Price 


1919 


521,500 


612 


319,276 


$157,340 


$49.30 


1920 


621,900 


681 


423,703 


88,271 


20.80 


1921 


414,900 


594 


246,540 


60,402 


24.50 


1922 


444,000 


611 


271,170 


74,572 


27.50 


1923 


544,300 


728 


396,354 


81,998 


20.70 


1924 


473,500 


585 


276,819 


62,597 


22.60 


1925 


536,200 


696 


373,352 


83,756 


22.40 


1926 


546,700 


692 


378,274 


96,762 


25.60 


1927 


639,600 


755 


482,982 


100,414 


20.80 


1928 


712,400 


692 


493,132 


93,450 


19.00 


1929 


729,300 


665 


484,630 


89,470 


18.50 


1930 


768,000 


757 


581,200 


74,733 


12.90 


1931 


688,500 


692 


476,382 


42,024 


8.80 


1932 


462,500 


624 


288,750 


34,949 


12.10 


1933 


667,800 


794 


530,133 


85,530 


16.10 


1934 


486,500 


847 


412,055 


117,999 


28.60 


1935 


612,500 


635 


572,625 


116,418 


20.30 


1936 


591,000 


765 


451,975 


101,856 


22.50 


1937 


675,000 


883 


595,815 


143,058 


24.00 


1938 


603,500 


844 


509,470 


115,428 


22.70 


1939 


843,000 


964 


812,540 


123,893 


15.20 


1940 


498,000 


1,038 


516,835 


85,792 


16.60 


1941 


488,000 


928 


452,825 


132,291 


29.20 


1942 


539,000 


1,052 


566,810 


221,538 


39.10 


1943 


580,000 


935 


542,200 


219,074 


40.40 


1944 


684,000 


1,077 


736,990 


317,628 


43.10 


1945 


722,000 


1,100 


794,310 


349,148 


44.00 


1946 


802,000 


1,138 


912,970 


451,639 


49.50 


1947 


783,000 


1,139 


892,205 


374,513 


42.00 


1948 


594,000 


1,239 


739,380 


368,040 


49.80 


1949 


621,000 


1,178 


731,530 


352,685 


48.20 


1950 


640,000 


1,341 


858,140 


477,508 


55.60 


1951 


735,000 


1,331 


978,375 


523,358 


53.50 


1952 


735,000 


1,222 


898,090 


448,582 


49.90 


1953 


674,000 


1,222 


823,885 


444,895** 


54.00** 



* Source: N. C. and U.S.D.A. Crop Reporting Service. 
•* Estimate of Division of Markets based on producers' sales. 



19 



North Carolina Burley Crops 1928-1953 



Year 


No. Acres 


Yield Per 

Acre 
(Pounds) 


Production 
(1,000 lbs.) 


Value 
(1,000 Dollars) 


Average 
Price 


1928 


3,600 


650 


2,340 


$ 690 


$29.50 


1929 


5,500 


730 


4,015 


863 


21.50 


1930 


7,200 


750 


5,400 


853 


15.80 


1931 


7,100 


710 


5,041 


464 


9.20 


1932 


6,500 


735 


4,778 


726 


15.20 


1933 


9,200 


785 


7,222 


809 


17.50 


1934 


5,500 


870 


4,785 


809 


17.50 


1935 


5,200 


925 


4,810 


1,025 


21.30 


1936 


6,000 


900 


5,400 


2,095 


38.80 


1937 


9,000 


975 


8,775 


1,787 


21.40 


1938 


8,600 


900 


7,740 


1,308 


16.90 


1939 


8,100 


1,070 


8,667 


1,447 


16.70 


1940 


6,500 


1,050 


6,825 


1,242 


18.20 


1941 


6,200 


1,075 


6,665 


2,093 


31.40 


1942 


6,000 


1,150 


7,590 


3,211 


42.30 


1943 


8,500 


1,225 


10,412 


5,102 


49.00 


1944 


12,000 


1,390 


16,680 


8,157 


48.90 


1945 


13,000 


1,500 


19,500 


7,568 


38.30 


1946 


9,800 


1,475 


14,455 


5,999 


41.50 


1947 


9,600 


1,560 


14,976 


6,335 


42.30 


1948 


10,300 


1,680 


17,304 


8,012 


46.30 


1949 


10,800 


1,440 


15,552 


6,750 


43.40 


1950 


10,500 


1,700 


17,850 


9,175 


51.40 


1951 


12,200 


1,750 


21,350 


11,572 


54.20 


1952 


12,000 


1,680 


20,160 


9,818 


48.70 


1953 


11,400 


1,700 


19,380 


10,388** 


53.60** 



Source: N. C. and U.S.D.A. Crop Reporting Service. 
Estimate of Division of Markets based on producers' sales. 



20 



North Carolina Tobacco Allotments-T954' 

County N. Farms Acres 

Flue-Cured 

Alamance 1415 7,022.7 

Alexander 995 2,180.2 

Anson 261 581.7 

Beaufort 2686 14,037.8 

Bertie 1839 8,363.0 

Bladen 3655 10,928.0 

Brunswick 1861 4,798.2 

Cabarrus 1 0.1 

Caldwell 267 704.3 

Camden 2 6.9 

Carteret 439 1,983.2 

Caswell 1946 13,501.3 

Catawba 5 7.1 

Chatham 1174 4,438.9 

Chowan 199 799.0 

Cleveland 2 2.6 

Columbus 5608 23,994.6 

Craven 1917 12,513.0 

Cumberland 2576 7,700.6 

Davidson 1718 4,948.3 

Davie 867 1,912.8 

Duplin 5007 22,742.9 

Durham 1075 5,761.3 

Edgecombe 1621 16,856.8 

Forsyth 2141 7,483.6 

Franklin ' 2943 16,815.5 

Gaston 4 7.3 

Gates 133 396.0 

Granville 2151 19,575.3 

Greene 1198 17,653.5 

Guilford 3199 13,674.4 

Halifax 2333 8,659.0 

Harnett 3949 21,292.9 

Hertford 1064 4,761.6 

Hoke 1049 4,181.1 

Hyde ) 3 1.0 

Iredell 815 1,870.9 

* Source: U: S. Agricultural Stabilization & Conservation Service. 



Rank 



36 
50 
61 
21 
82 
28 
43 
76 
59 
71 
51 
23 
70 
46 
58 
72 

7 
24 
34 
40 
52 

8 
39 
16 
35 
18 
69 
62 
13 
15 
22 
31 
11 
44 
47 
74 
53 



21 



North Carolina Tobacco Allot-menf-s-1 954* Cont. 

County N. Farms Acres Rank 

Flue-Cured— Cont. 

Johnston 6044 

Jones 946 

Lee 1364 

Lenoir 1957 

Martin 1686 

Mecklenburg 3 

Montgomery 436 

Moore 1615 

Nash 3069 

New Hanover 116 

Northampton 213 

Onslow 1922 

Orange 937 

Pamlico 442 

Pender 1728 

Person 1792 

Pitt 2771 

Randolph 1606 

Richmond 1097 

Robeson 5172 

Rockingham 3091 

Rowan 45 

Sampson 5925 

Scotland 525 

Stokes 2822 

Surry 3232 

Tyrrell 1 

Vance 1532 

Wake 4062 

Warren 2073 

Washington 283 

Wayne 3125 

Wilkes 985 

Wilson 2211 

Yadkin 2730 

TOTALS 125,679 

22 



33,212.6 


2 


7,956.9 


33 


6,041.6 


38 


20,495.3 


12 


12,456.7 


25 


1.1 


73 


1,414.2 


56 


6,760.5 


37 


26,691.3 


5 


289.3 


63 


688.2 


60 


9,187.4 


29 


4,900.9 


42 


1,600.1 


55 


4,744.0 


45 


14,122.3 


20 


37,179.3 


1 


4,945.0 


41 


3,040.8 


48 


30,247.3 


3 


19,194.4 


14 


78.1 


64 


22,330.5 


9 


1,685.3 


54 


16,837.5 


17 


16,059.8 


19 


1.0 


75 


11,870.0 


27 


28,588.3 


4 


9,056.7 


30 


1,382.3 


57 


21,307.7 


10 


2,284.1 


49 


24,666.9 


6 


11,873.2 


26 


695,348.0 


1-76 



Burley Tobacco Allofmenfs^1954 

County N, Farms Acres Rank 

Alexander 2 0.8 29 

Alleghany 455 242.3 9 

Ashe 2313 1,246.8 5 

Avery 232 125.9 11 

Buncombe 3205 2,009.4 2 

Burke 7 3.9 21 

Caldwell 26 14.5 20 

Catawba 4 1.4 26 

Cherokee 157 67.1 14 

Clay 166 87.0 12 

Cleveland 6 2.8 24 

Davidson 6 3.8 22 

Gaston 2 1.6 25 

Graham 718 373.5 8 

Haywood 2161 1,404.4 3 

Henderson 115 53.2 16 

Iredell 3 1.4 27 

Jackson 286 126.5 10 

Lincoln 1 0.2 34 

McDowell 79 27.9 19 

Macon 186 64.9 15 

Madison 3263 3,318.5 1 

Mecklenburg 1 0.8 30 

Mitchell 977 596.1 7 

Polk 5 1.3 28 

Randolph 1 0.7 31 

Rutherford 78 34.8 18 

Stokes 1 0.2 34 

Surry 3 0.4 32 

Swain 200 69.0 13 

Transylvania 64 39.7 17 

Watauga 1599 936.5 6 

Wilkes 12 3.4 23 

Yancey 2057 1,374.6 4 

TOTALS 18,391 12,235.3 1-34 



23 



Norf-h Carolina Tobacco Warehouses and 
Operat-ors by Belts and Market-s-1953 

N. C. BORDER BELT 

Chadbourn (one set buyers) 

Carters No. 1 & 2— J. F. Bullard, W. J. Rabon, L. L. & J. C. Tilley 
Meyers — J. H. Harper, J. D. Hendley 

New Brick — W. C. Coates, Jr., J. C. Green, Charlie Teachey 
New Farmers — Charlie Teachey 

Clarkton (one set buyers) 
Banners — H. G. Perry 
Bright Leaf— H. G. Perry 

New Bladen— E. C. Huff, W. McDuffie, N. Cox 
New Clarkton — E. L. Dudley, J. A. Chesnutt, Bob Dale 

Fair Bluff (one set buyers) 

Powell— A. H. Powell & Sons 
Planters— N. N. Love, H. G. McNeill 
Littleton's No. 1 & 2—0. P. Littleton 

Fairmont (four sets buyers) 

Big 5 — E. J. Chambers, Yarboro & Garrett Co. 

Robeson County — E. J. Chambers, Yarboro & Garrett Co. 

Peoples — E. J. Chambers, Yarboro & Garrett Co. 

Davis — F. A. Davis, Harry & Jack Mitchell 

Mitchell-Davis— F. A. Davis, Harry & Jack Mitchell 

Frye No. 1 & 2— E. H. Frye, J. W. and J. M. Holliday 

Holliday— E. H. Frye, J. W. and J. M. Holliday 

Planters No. 1 & 2— G. R. Royster 

Square Deal 1-2-3— W. G. Bassett 

Star-Carolina 1-2-3— T. S. Booker, C. A. Blankenship, W. G. Sheets 

Twin State 1-2-3— P. R. Floyd, Jr., R. J. Harris, Paul Wilson 

Fayettevile (one set buyers) 

Big Farmers — R. H. Barbour, P. L. Campbell 
Wellons — J. W. Stephenson, J. C. Adams 

Lumberton (three sots buyers) 

Carolina — M. A. Roycroft, J. L. Townsend, J. Johnson 
Smith-Dixie— N. A. McKeithan, J. A. Kinlow, E. K. Biggs, H. P. Allen 
Hedgepeth — R. A. Hedgepeth, J. K. Roycroft, R. L. Rollins 
Liberty — R. E. Wilkens, F. S. White, R. H. Livermore, H. D. Goode 
Star, Inc. — Hogan Teater, D. T. Stephenson 
Lumberton Cooperative — C. E. McLaurin, Mgr. 

Tabor City (one set buyers) 

Carolina — R. C. Coleman, Mrs. Harriet Sikes 
New Farmers — R. C. Coleman, Mrs. Harriet Sikes 
Planters — Don Watson, Mgr. 

24 



Whiteville (three sets buyers) 

Brooks— Blair & H. L. Motley 

Crutchfield— G. E. & R. W. Crutchfield 

Lea's No. 1 & 2 — Wm. Townes Lea 

Moores — A. H. Moore 

Nelson's No. 1 & 2— John H. Nelson, F. M. Mobly 

Perkins-Newman — H. L. & J. W. Perkins, N. C. Newman 

Planters No. 1 & 2— A. 0. King, Jr., J. W. Peay 

Tuggles — A. Dial Gray, J. L. Neal 

Farmers — A. Dial Gray, J. L. Neal 

Columbus County — A. Dial Gray, J. L. Neal 

EASTERN BELT 

Ahoskie (one set buyers) 

Basnight No. 1 & 2— L. L. Wilkens, H. G. Veasey 
Farmers No. 1 & 2— W. D. Odom, E. R. Evans 

Clinton (one set buyers) 

Carolina — Mrs. Z. D. McWhorter, Ennis Bass, L. D. Herring 

Center Brick — Guy R. Ross 

Ross No. 2 — Guy R. Ross 

Farmers — H. A. Carr, J. A. Chesnut, E. L. Dudley, J. J. Hill 

Dunn (one set buyers) 

Big 4 Warehouse — A. B. Currin, 0. G. Calhoun, T. B. Smothers 
Planters— R. A. Chestnut, E. C. Edgerton, C. L. Tart 

Farmville (two sets buyers) 

Bell's— L. R. Bell & Sons, C. C. Ivey & Bros. 

Farmers — John N. Fountain, Mgr. 

Fountains — John N. Fountain, Mgr. 

Monks No. 1 & 2— J. Y. Monk, R. D. Rouse, J. C. Carlton, G. Webb 

Planters — M. J. Moye, Chester Worthington 

Goldsboro (one set buyers) 

Carolina — S. G. Best, Bruce Smith 

Farmers No. 1 & 2— S. B. Hill, Carl Holloman, W. M. Rouse, H. Benton 

Tin— 0. L. Littleton, H. C. Whitley 

Victory^J. B. Scott, R. Smith, J. HopeAvell, P. Bridgers 

Big Brick — J. R. Musgrave 

Greenville (five sets buyers) 

Dixie — W. T. Cannon, Carlton Dail 

Farmers — J. A. Tripp 

Harris-Rogers — R. E. Rogers, R. E. Harris 

Keel's Cooperative — J. T. Keel, Mgr. 

McGowan's No. 1 & 2— C. H. McGowan 

Morton's — W. Z. Morton 

New Carolina No. 1 & 2 — Floyd McGowan 

New Independent — G. B. Jones 

New Enterprise — D. W. Worthington 

Star No. 1 & 2— B. B. Suggs, G. V. Smith 

Raynor & Harris — N. G. Raynor, C. B. Harris 

25 



Kinston (four full sets buyers — fifth set incomplete) 
Brooks — J. R. & Fred Brooks 
Central— J. E. Jones, C. W. Wooten 
Eagle Warehouse Co. — Percy Holden, W. H. Jones 
New Carolina — W. H. Jones 
Farmers — J. T. Jenkins, L. E. Pollock 
Kinston Cooperative — D. W. Hodges, Mgr. 
Knott Warehouse, Inc. — K. W. Loftin, Mgr. 
Knotts New— H. G. Knott, W. E. Brewer 
New Dixie — John Jenkins, Mgr. 
Planters — L. O. Stokes, Mgr. 
Sheppard No. 1 & 2— R. E. Sheppard 
Tapps — Bill King, Mgr. 
The Star Warehouse — C. J. Herring 

Robersonville (one set buyers) 

Adkins & Bailey— I. M. Little, R. K. Adkins 

New Red Front— J. H. Gray, J. W. Peay 

Planters No. 1 & 2— H. T. Highsmith, E. G. Anderson 

Rocky Mount (four sets buyers) 

Cobb & Foxhall No. 1 & 2— W. E. Cobb, H. P. Foxhall 

Mangum — Roy M. Phipps 

Planters No. 1-2-3— S. S. Edmondson, Sec. 

Smith No. 1 & 2— James D. Smith 

Works Warehouse — R. J. Works & Son 

Easley Warehouse Co., Inc. — H. A. Easley, Mgr. 

Farmers Warehouse, Inc. — J. Holt Evans, Mgr. 

Fenners — J. B. Fenner 

Smithfield (two sets buyers) 

Big Planters — J. B. Wooten, E. H. Valentine 

Farmers No. 1 & 2 — N. L. Daughtery, G. G. Adams, W. L. Kennedy 

Gold Leaf No. 1 & 2— R. A. Pearce 

Perkins Riverside — N. L. Perkins 

Wallace No. 1 & 2 — Lawrence and Dixon Wallace 

Tarboro (one set buyers) 

Clarks No. 1 & 2— H. I. Johnson, S. A. McConkey 
Farmers No. 1 & 2 — W. L. House, J. P. Bunn 
Victory No. 1 & 2— Cliff Weeks, W. L. Leggett 

Wallace (one set buyers) 

Blanchard & Farrior — O. C. Blanchard, W. H. Farrior 
Hussey No. 1 & 3— W. L. Hussey, G. D. Bennett 
Bryant & Blanchard — J. H. Bryant, J. T. Southerland 

Washington (one set buyers) 

Gravely's — H. C. Gravely, W. A. Gravely 
Sermons No. 1 & 2 — W. J. Sermons, J. E. Roberson 
Hassell-Knott-Edwards 1 & 2— L. E. Knott, M. M. Hassell, W. S. 
Edwards 

26 



Wendell (two sets buyers) 

Banners No. 1 & 2— W. G. Maples, J. E. and Walter Walker 

Farmers 1 & 2— L. R. Clark & Son 

Northside— G. Dean, E. H. Price & J. H. Sanders 

Planters — G. Dean, E. H. Price & J. H. Sanders 

Liberty— H. F. Harris, I. D. Medlin, J. W. Dale 

Star A & B— R. R. Robertson, G. R. Watkins 

Wilson (five sets buyers) 

Big Dixie— E. B. Hicks, R. P. Dew, W. C. Thompson 

Wainwright — G. L. Wainwright 

Center Brick No. 1-2-3— Cozart & Eagles Co. 

Farmers — J. J. Gibbons, S. G. Deans 

Growers Cooperative — S. E. Griffin, Mgr. 

New Planters No. 1 & 2— R. T. & W. C. Smith, B. W. Carr 

Smith Warehouse, Inc. A, B & C— H. H. Harris, Jr., Mgr. 

Watson — Cozart & Eagles Co. 

Clark's— C. R. & Boyd Clark 

New Liberty — Carl B. Renfro 

Williamston (one set buyers) 

Carolina— S. C. Griffin, H. L. Barnhill, J. B. Taylor, E. Lilley 
Farmer— S. C. Griffin, H. L. Barnhill, J. B. Taylor, E. Lilley 
Planters — J. W. Gurkin, J. R. Rogers 
Roanoke-Dixie — J. W. Gurkin, J. R. Rogers 

Windsor (one set buyers) 

Farmers— S. F. & J. F. Hicks 
Rogers — R. E. Rogers, R. E. Harris 

3IIDDLE BELT 

Aberdeen (one set buyers) 

New Aberdeen — John Murray 
Planters — Wm. Maurer 
Bass — Taft Bass 

Carthage (one set buyers) 

McConnells— W. M. & G. D. Carter, Jr. 
Smothers No. 1 & 2— H. P. & R. D. Smothers 
Victory — D. T. Bailey, R. L. Comer 

Durham (three sets buyers) 

Liberty — John & Walker Stone 

Roycroft— H. T., M. A. & J. K. Roycroft, J. C. Currin 

Star-Brick — A. L. Carver, Cozart, Currin 

Farmers — J. M. Talley 

Ellerbe (One set buyers) 

Farmers — Geo. Mabe, L. G. Dewitt 

Richmond County — W. H. & H. P. Rummage, W. F. Meadows 



27 



Fuquay-Varina (two sets buyers) 

Big Top— King Roberts, E. E. Clayton 

New Deal— W. M., R. B., A. L. Talley 

Talley Bros.— W. M., R. B., A. L. Talley 

Southside — J. C. Adams, J. W. Stepheson 

Varina-Brick — J. C. Adams, J. W. Stephenson 

Gold Leaf— P. L. Campbell, R. H. Barbour, S. T, Proctor 

Henderson (two sets buyers) 

Banners— C. J. Fleming, C. B. Turner, E. C. Huff, L. B. Wilkinson 
Carolina — W. B. Daniel, F. S. Royster 
■ Planters— W. B. Daniel, F. S. Royster 
Moore's Big Henderson — A. H. Moore 
Farmers — W. J. Alston 

High Price— C. J. Fleming, C. B. Turner, E. C. Huff, L. B. Wilkinson 
Liberty— George T. Robertson 
Alston — W. J. Alston, Jr. 
Ellington— F. H. Ellington, J. K. Weldon 

Louisburg (one set buyers) 

Big Franklin— A. N. Wilson, S. T. & H. B. Cottrell 
Southside A & B— Charlie Ford 
Union — G. C. Harris, N. F. Freeman 

Oxford (two sets buyers 

Banner — W. L. Mitchell, Jr., Mgr. 

Farmers — B. T. Williams, Julian Adcock, S. B. Knott, Joe Cutts 

Mangum — B. T. Williams, Julian Adcock, S. B. Knott, Joe Cutts 

Fleming No. 1 & 2— G. B. Watkins, D. T. Currin, H. G. Taylor 

Planters— C. R. Watkins 

Johnson — C. R. Watkins 

Owens No. 1 & 2 — J. S. Watkins, L. Gregory 

Sanford (one set buyers) 

Big Sanford— Joe M. Wilkens, G. T. Hancock 
Farmers Flag— C. W. Puckett, F. L. McCallum 
Wood 3-W No. 1 & 2— W. F. Wood 
Central No. 1 & 2— D. T. Hobgood, L. B. Maddox 

Warrenton (one set buyers) 
Boyd's— W. P. Burwell 
Center No. 1 & 2— M. D. Carroll 
Currin's No. 1 & 2— D. G. Currin, C. W. Currin 
Farmers — E. G. Tarwater 
Thompson — C. E. Thompson 

OLD BELT 

Burlington (one set buyers) 

Carolina— R. D. Tickle, J. G. McCray, B. G. Conner 
Coble— N. C. Newman, L. O. Winstead, R. W. Rainey 
Farmers— O. H. King, C. R. McCauley 

28 



Greensboro (one set buyers) 

Greensboro Tobacco Warehouse Co. — R. C. Coleman, Mgr. 

Guilford County Warehouse Co.— J. R. Pell, H. P. Smothers, G. G. Reid 

Madison (one set buyers) 

New Brick— R. T. Chilton, S. F. Webster, R. G. Angell 
Carolina— R. T. Chilton, S. F. Webster, R. G. Angell 
Sharp & Smith— W. S. Smith, H. A. Fagg 
Farmers — W. S. Smith, H. A. Fagg 

Mebane (one set buyers) 

Farmers — W. C. Coates, A. S. Anderson, J. C. Green 
Piedmont— J. D. Wood, J. B. Keck 
Planters— J. W. Dillard, J. H. Warren 

Ml, Airy (one set buyers) 

New Dixie 1 & 2 — Oscar L. Badgett 

Liberty — R. C. Simmons, Jr., F. V. Dearmin, Dave Smith 
Simmons — R. C. Simmons, Jr., F. V. Dearmin, Dave Smith 
Planters & Jones — Tom and Frank Jones, Buck White, Hub Brown 

Reidsville (one set buyers) 

Browns— G. E. Smith, P. D. McMichael, D. Huffines 
Farmers— G. E. Smith, P. D. McMichael, D. Huffines 
Leader — A. P. Sands, A. G. Irvin 
Watts— A. P. Sands, A. G. Irvin 
Smothers— T. B. & J. M. Smothers 

Roxboro (one set buyers) 

Farmers — Lindsay Wagstaff, R. L. Hester 

Hyco — W. R. Jones, F. J. Hester, Geo. Walker 

Foacre— H. W. Winstead, Jr., J. H. Merritt, D. L. Whitfield 

Planters No. 1 & 2— T. O. Pass 

Winstead— T. T. & Elmo Mitchell 

Stoneville (one set buyers) 

Brown's No. 1 & 2 — 0. P. Joyce, Roy Carter 

Farmers — F. A. Brown, B. M. Slate 

Piedmont — J. J. Webster, G. D. Rakestraw 

Slate Brothers No. 1 & 2— B. M. Slate, F. A. Brown 

Winston-Salem (four sets buyers) 

Brown — R. W. Newsome, W. B. Simpson 

Carolina — H. M. Bouldin, G. H. Robertson 

Dixie— Floyd Joyce, W. G. Sheets, J. R. Pell, M. M. Joyner 

Farmers— Floyd Joyce, W. G. Sheets, J. R. Pell, M. M. Joyner 

Glenn & Banner Co.— C. T. Glenn, D. L. Harris, Chas. Dalton 

Liberty— M. M. Joyner, J. R. Pell, W. G. Sheets, Floyd Joyce 

Pepper No, 1 & 2— F. D. Pepper 

Piedmont — W. B. Simpson, R. W. Newsom 

Planters — Foss Smithdeal, Frank Smithdeal, Wes Watson 

Taylor— Paul Taylor, J. H. Dyer 

29 



Big Winston— R. T. & J. F. Carter 

Cooks No. 1 & 2— B. E. Cook, C. B. Strickland, Wm. Fowler, H. A. 

Thomas 
George-Davis — Foss & Frank Smithdeal, Wes Watson 

N. C. HURLEY BELT 

Asheville (two sets buyers- — second set incomplete) 
Carolina — Max Roberts, Mgr. 
Dixie No. 1 & 2— J. C. Adams, L. J. Hill 
Planters No. 1 & 2— J. W. Stewart, Fred D. Cockfield 
Bernard-Walker Warehouses- — James E. Walker, Mgr. 
Big Burley— J. C. Adams, L. J. Hill 

Boone (one set buyers) 

Mountain Burley No. 1 & 2— R. C. Coleman 
Farmers Burley — R. C. Coleman 

West Jefferson (one set buyers) 
Tri-State Burley— C. C. Taylor 
Planters— C. C. Taylor 



30 



TOBACCO CONSUMPTION 

Per Capita, 15 Years Old and Over 



LBS. 

12 

9 
6 
3 



Toial 




Smoking, 
chewing, snuff 



-y— Cigarettes 




1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 



UNSTEmtiED PKOCESSINC-WEICHT eOU/VALENT CONSUUED IN UNITED ^fATES AND BY OVERSEA! FORCES 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF A6RICULTURE NES. 48631 -XX BUREAU OF A6RICULTURAL ECONOMICS 



f